Special Interests - Archaeology

Thanks to its geographical location, Serbia is blessed with many archaeological sites. Traces of the first Paleolithic settlements found are dated to 40,000 BC. If your interest is Archaeology, you should not miss a visit to the following sites:



Vinca  - An upper Neolithic culture dated 4500- 3200 BC named after the village of Vinca, located just outside of Belgrade, where the settlement was found.

Lepenski Vir  - This Mesolithic site dates from 7000-5500 BC and is located in the Iron Gate area on the Danube.  This site represents one of the earliest great cultures in Europe 



Viminacium  (Kostolac) – This was the biggest settlement and the capital of the Roman province of Upper Moesia . It is located on the banks of Danube and in the 1st century AD played a very important role as a military base in the wars against the Dacia. During the centuries Viminacium hosted many emperors including Hadrian, Diocletian, Constantine and Justinian .   

Sirmium  (Sremska Mitrovica) - Located in the southwest of the province of Pannonia, Sirmium gained in significance and size very quickly. In the 1st century the city was granted the status of colony, and during Marcus Aurelius’ wars on the Danube was his main stronghold. Diocletian’s reform made it the capital of the province and in the 3rd and 4th centuries the imperial residence was located here.  

Naissus & Mediana  (Nis)  - Naissus is the birth place of Emperor Constantine the Great.  During the period from 317 to 334 AD he frequently visited the city, making it a very important city with a luxurious imperial residence.  

Felix Romuliana UNESCO (Gamzigrad) – Built in the early 4th century AD by Emperor Galerius, this served as both his homeland residence and his final resting place. Surrounded by strong walls with many towers, there was a palace, a large Jupiter temple and many other public buildings. The site has also preserved remnants of the once lavish decorations, including floor mosaics, fragments of fines statues of porphyry and marble, and architectural ornaments.


Roman Emperors born within the territory of modern Serbia: 
Trajan Decius (249 – 251) 
Hostilian (251) 
Claudius II Gothicus (268-270) 
Aurelian (270-275) 
Probus (276-282) 
Maximianus Herculius (285-305 ; 310) 
Constantius Chlorus (293 – 306) 
Galerius (293 – 311) 
Maximinus Daia (305 – 313) 
Flavius Severus (305 – 307) 
Constantinus Primus (306 – 337) 
Licinus (307 – 324) 
Constantius II (337 – 361) 
Vetranio (350) 
Jovian (363 – 364) 
Gratian (367 – 383) 
Constantius III (421)



Petrovaradin Fortress - The Petrovaradin Fortress, an exceptional work of 18th-century fortification engineering, is one of the largest, most complex and most well preserved artillery bastions in this part of Europe. It spreads over the northern slopes of Fruška Gora, on the right bank of the Danube. With the apex 125 m above sea level, it has the dominant position in the southeastern part of the Pannonian Plain. It covers an area of over 100 ha, has a 5200-meter-long outer defence line and a complex system of underground military galleries with mine and listening tunnels.  These tunnels are distributed at four levels, possessing over 1600 meters in total length. Being the last in the series of fortifications, using all the advantages of the exceptional geostrategic position, and being unique in style and concept, it unifies the coherence and monumentality of the military architecture with the natural environment.

Belgrade Fortress  (Kalemegdan) – This fortress lies within the historical heart of Belgrade, a place that, in the best way represents its history. Kalemegdan has served as a Byzantine Castle (VI and XII centuries), a medieval fortified capital of the Serbian state (XIII and XV centuries), and in the end both an Austrian and Turkish military fortress (XVII and XVIII centuries) were built on Roman fortifications, erected here in the form of the Roman castrum (II century). Belgrade Fortress represented one of the strongest bastions in Europe. The name Kalemegdan refers to a plateau around the Fortress, which became a park in the late 19th century. Its purpose was to observe the enemy whilst the fortress was the main military stronghold of Belgrade. Its name consists of two Turkish words "kale" - field and "megdan" - battle. The Turks used to call Kalemegdan Ficir-bajir, which means "Hill for meditation".

Smederevo Fortress  - Smederevo, one of the biggest fortresses in Europe, lies on the right bank of the Danube. It was erected between 1428 and 1430 during the reign of Despot (title for Serbian rulers after the battle at Kosovo) Djuradj Brankovic. His intention was to make it the seat of the civilian and religious government. This Fortress represents the most monumental military edifice in Serbia and one of the biggest medieval fortifications. Its main purpose was defense against Turkish attacks. When the Turks conquered it in 1459 it was the end of the Serbian medieval state. The fortress has a triangular shape divided into two parts, known as the Small Town and the Big Town. Most of the towers are on the wall facing the land. Small Town is a specially fortified ruler's court surrounded by water whilst in the Big Town there is a complex which consists of Archbishop's residence and residential area. Small Town is surrounded by six towers, and Big Town is surrounded by nineteen towers. The towers are 11 m wide and 20 m high and once were protected by cannons. In 1480 the Turks built one tower on all three corners as well as a tower in the middle of the town wall.

Golubac Fortress – Fortress is located near the town of Golubac in north-eastern Serbia, on the right side of the Danube river, and marks the entrance to the Djerdap national park. It was most likely built during the 14th century by Hungarians, and it is a rather large and well-preserved fortress among those of its time and geographical location. It has nine towers between 20 and 25 meters high, five of which belong to the older and four to the younger phase of building. They are connected by fortress walls with an average width of 2.8 m. The fortress is strategically located on the embankment of the Danube river where it narrows to form the Iron Gate gorge, allowing for the regulation of traffic across and along the river. A long chain would be stretched across the river, barring passage to ships unless they were deemed worthy of passage and paid a passage tax.